Criteria to distinguish between natural situations and illegal use of boldenone, boldenone esters and boldione in cattle: 1 Metabolite profiles of boldenone, boldenone esters and boldione in cattle urine

Group B received 4.4 mg/kg bwt boldenone undecylenate 5% oily solution (Equi-gan®; Lab Tornel, Co., Mexico). Nonetheless, the non-medical attributes of these substances have captured the interest of many individuals. This includes the potential benefits exploited by bodybuilders, fitness enthusiasts, individuals in show business, and professional athletes. These groups seek to use these substances to aid in weight reduction and shape an appealing physique.

Reduction in AChE activity, a marker of cholinergic activity in cognitive and memory impairment disorders has been established [86]. In addition, positron emission tomography and autopsy studies revealed a loss of AChE in the forebrain of Alzheimer’s disease patients [87, 88]. The present decreased AChE activity could be ascribed to the oxidative stress observed in the cortex. AChE activity is sensitive to free radicals and increased oxidative stress [89]. The decrease in AChE has also been observed with the increase in lipid peroxidation during human aging [90].

An athlete can acquire these positive effects from the use of EQ:

The increase in urea concentration with the AASs use is attributed to the severe reduction in kidney function (Herlitz et al., 2010). Nephrosclerosis, disruptive glomerulosclerosis, and acute renal failure have been observed in AASs users (Taher et al., 2008; Winnett et al., 2011). BLD has been reported to enhance the retention of nitrogen, protein synthesis, appetite, and erythropoietin release in the kidneys but decreases protein degradation. Besides, nitrogen, body water, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and calcium ions are stored (Gabr et al., 2009). Microscopic examination of the cerebral cortex of control rats showed normal histological features of cerebral cortical layers with many well organized apparent intact neurons having intact cell membrane. The glial cells are intact and there is no sign of cytoplasmic shrinkage (arrows) (Fig.7a).

Boldenone is an androgenic steroid that improves the growth and food conversion in food producing animals. In most countries worldwide, this anabolic steroid is forbidden for meat production. Until recently, the control of its illegal use was based either on 17β-boldenone or 17α-boldenone (its main metabolite in cattle) identification in edible tissues, hair, faeces or urine. Recent observations and data tend to demonstrate the natural occurrence (but not ubiquitous) in cattle of these steroids, making the analytical strategy of the control more complicated. We investigated the metabolism of boldenone in cattle after intramuscular and oral treatment of boldenone, boldenone esters and boldione.

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With its anabolic properties, eq uk stimulates protein synthesis and nitrogen retention within muscle cells, facilitating the development of lean muscle mass. This is particularly appealing to bodybuilders who strive for a sculpted and well-defined physique. By incorporating Boldenone into their training regimen, athletes can experience enhanced gains and accelerated muscle recovery, allowing them to push their limits further.

Hepatotoxicity of AASs is linked to increased infiltration in hepatic tissue by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (Neri et al., 2011; Bond et al., 2016). Several liver alterations have been reported following AASs abuse, like subcellular hepatocyte modifications, hepatocellular hyperplasia, and general liver damage (Solimini et al., 2017). Also, chronic kidney illness remains long asymptomatic before diagnosis in AASs users. Besides, because of its growing muscle mass, creatinine levels are often high in AASs-treated patients, even in the absence of renal injury (Parente Filho et al., 2020).


Immunohistochemically, identical results to those of the AR and Hsp90 fractions of DAB brown areas in the hepatic tissues were obtained for all groups’ renal tissues. As represented in Figures 1 and 2, rats orally administered VC for eight weeks revealed non-significant changes in hepatic and renal oxidant/antioxidant markers compared to the control group. However, the VC co-treatment in intramuscularly BLD injected rats significantly reduced the MDA level but increased GSH, GPx, GST, and GSR levels compared with BLD-injected group. The effects of intramuscular injection of BLD and oral VC administration for eight weeks on rats’ serum renal injury markers are displayed in Table 1.

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Equipoise in Hollywood – Do Celebrities Buy Equipoise?

Vitamin C (VC) is an essential micronutrient and important nutritional supplement (Bozonet et al., 2015). Vitamin C tablets are a commonly used and widely available oral supplement that highly consumed throughout the world (Granger and Eck, 2018; Cerullo et al., 2020). VC is an outstanding electron source that donates electrons to free radicals such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and quenches their responsiveness both inside and out of cells (Bindhumol et al., 2003). VC also rescued nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced acute kidney injury in rats by enhancing kidney function and reducing renal tissue inflammation and oxidative damage (El-Shafei and Saleh, 2016). In addition to enhancing strength, Equipoise has a notable impact on endurance. This supplement stimulates the production of red blood cells, which are responsible for carrying oxygen to the muscles.

Equipoise and Testosterone Enanthate Cycle

Supporting this notion is the reduced level of Bcl2 and the elevated level of caspase-3 that have been recorded in the cortex of rats treated with either of these two agents or their combination. (A–F) Representative photomicrograph of the H&E stained hepatic tissue sections showing normal histological pictures in the vehicle control (A) and VC-treated (B) rats. The BLD-treated rats showing peliosis hepatis (black ellipses), and nuclear pyknosis (black arrowheads) (C), biliary hyperplasia (black arrow), hydropic degeneration (black arrowhead), and portal inflammatory infiltrate (black ellipse) (D). (G–L) Representative photomicrograph of the H&E stained renal tissue sections showing normal histological pictures in the vehicle control (G) and VC-treated (H) rats. In these years, great concern has been paid to using natural antioxidants as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent against side effects of medication misuse (Mohamed et al., 2019; El-Rahman et al., 2020; Abd-Elhakim et al., 2021).

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